Keyword: radio-frequency
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MOP003 Development of Nb3Sn Cavity Coating at IMP cavity, niobium, SRF, experiment 21
 
  • Z.Q. Yang, H. Guo, Y. He, C.L. Li, Z.Q. Lin, M. Lu, T. Tan, P.R. Xiong, S.H. Zhang, S.X. Zhang
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China
 
  The A15 superconductor Nb3Sn is one of the most promising alternative materials to standard niobium for SRF applications. In this paper, we report our progress in the development of Nb3Sn cavity coating by vapor diffusion method at IMP. The evolutionary process of nucleation was analyzed. Influence of SnCl2 partial pressure inhomogeneity was studied. Less-nuclear zones were found on the surfaces of nucleation samples. The Nb3Sn film structure and composition were investigated and analyzed. In light of knowledge obtained above, the coating process was optimized. Finally, both 1.3 GHz and 650 MHz single cell cavities were coated and vertically tested both at 4 K and 2 K. Effect of low temperature baking (1000°C for 48 hs) on the RF performance of Nb3Sn cavity was studied. After baking, the Q drop in the low field region was eliminated and the Q in the intermediate field region was increased 8 times. The Q was 10 times larger than that of the Nb cavity at 4.2 K even in the case of the ambient field larger than 20 mGs. This study shows that the low temperature baking is an effective enrichment to the post treatment of the Nb3Sn cavity.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP003  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 03 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP011 High Frequency Nb3Sn Cavities cavity, SRF, niobium, factory 44
 
  • R.D. Porter, M. Liepe, J.T. Maniscalco
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Niobium-3 Tin (Nb3Sn) is an alternative material to Nb for SRF cavities. This material is capable of higher temperature operation and has high theoretical maximum accelerating gradients. Cornell University is a leader in the development of this material for SRF applications, and current Nb3Sn 1.3 GHz single cells produced at Cornell achieve quality factors above 10zEhNZeHn at 4.2 K at medium fields, far above what can be reached with niobium. Most of the recent Nb3Sn cavity development has been done at 1.3 GHz. In this paper, we present new results from Nb3Sn cavities at 2.6 GHz and 3.9 GHz. We compare relative cavity performance and flux trapping sensitivities, and extract frequency dependencies. Results show that the frequency can be increased without degrading the performance of the cavities, opening the path towards a new generation of compact and efficient SRF cavities for a wide range of future applications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP011  
About • paper received ※ 05 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 12 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP014 Electroplating of Sn Film on Nb Substrate for Generating Nb3Sn Thin Films and Post Laser Annealing laser, cavity, electron, HOM 51
 
  • Z. Sun, M. Liepe, T.E. Oseroff, R.D. Porter
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • T. Arias, A.B. Connolly, J.M. Scholtz, N. Sitaraman, M.O. Thompson
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • X. Deng
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
  • K.D. Dobson
    University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
 
  Controlling film quality of Nb3Sn is critical to its SRF cavity performance. The state-of-the-art vapor diffusion approach for Nb3Sn deposition observed surface roughness, thin grain regions, and misfit dislocations which negatively affect the RF performance. The Sn deficiency and non-uniformity at the nucleation stage of vapor deposition is believed to be the fundamental reason to cause these roughness and defects issues. Thus, we propose to pre-deposit a uniform Sn film on the Nb substrate, which is able to provide sufficient Sn source during the following heat treatment for Nb3Sn nucleation and growth. Here, we demonstrated successful electrodeposition of a low-roughness, dendrite-free, excellent-adhesion Sn film on the Nb substrate. More importantly, we further achieved a uniform, low-roughness (Ra = 66 nm), pure-stoichiometric Nb3Sn film through thermal treatment of this electroplated Sn film in the furnace. Additionally, we provide preliminary results of laser annealing as a post treatment for epitaxial grain growth and roughness reduction.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP014  
About • paper received ※ 22 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUFUA5 Recent Development on Nitrogen Infusion Work Towards High Q and High Gradient cavity, SRF, niobium, injection 355
 
  • P. Dhakal
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
A quality factor as high as 2 × 1010 at 1.5 GHz was achieved at a gradient of 35 MV/m by 800 °C annealing and N-infusion at 140 °C. A comparison of the field dependence of the surface resistance after N-infusion with a recent theoretical model that extends the calculation of the BCS surface resistance to high rf fields suggests an increase in the quasiparticles’ relaxation time with increasing infusion temperature, which could be due to a decreasing density of subgap states. Nb coupons treated similarly showed the formation of thicker oxynitride layer on the surface beneath thin dielectric Nb2O5 layer. A plausible explanation for the improved Q0 is that the oxynitride layer on the Nb surface adds additional electron scattering within RF penetration depth.
 
slides icon Slides TUFUA5 [6.077 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-TUFUA5  
About • paper received ※ 19 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUP049 Maximum Performance of Cavities Affected by the High-field Q-slope (HFQS) cavity, SRF, experiment, niobium 533
 
  • G. Ciovati
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • A.V. Gurevich, I.P. Parajuli
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The work of I. P. and A. G. is supported by NSF Grant PHY 100614-010.
The performance of high-purity, bulk niobium SRF cavities treated by chemical processes such as BCP or EP is limited by the so-called high-field Q-slope (HFQS). Several models and experimental studies have been proposed and performed over the years to understand the origin of these anomalous losses but a general consensus on what these orgins are is yet to be established. In this contribution, we present the results from the RF tests of several 1.3 GHz single-cell cavities limited by the HFQS and tested using a variable input coupler. This allowed to maintain close to critical coupling even at high field and the data showed that the HFQS did not saturate and that in some cases a power dissipation of up to 200 W at 2 K could be sustained without quench.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-TUP049  
About • paper received ※ 21 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUP055 Nonlinear Dynamics and Dissipation of Vortex Lines Driven by Strong RF Fields cavity, ECR, niobium, electron 560
 
  • M.R.P. Walive Pathiranage, A.V. Gurevich
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Trapped vortices can contribute significantly to a residual surface resistance of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities but the nonlinear dynamics of flexible vortex lines driven by strong rf currents has not been well understood. Here we report extensive numerical simulations of large-amplitude oscillations of a trapped vortex line under the strong rf magnetic field. The rf power dissipated by an oscillating vortex segment driven by the rf Meissner currents was calculated by taking into account the nonlinear vortex line tension, vortex mass and a nonlinear Larkin-Ovchinnikov and overheating viscous drag force. We calculated the field dependence of the surface resistance Rs and showed that at low frequencies Rs(H) increases with H but as the frequency increases, Rs(H) becomes a non-monotonic function of H which decreases with H at higher fields. These results suggest that trapped vortices can contribute to the extended Q(H) rise observed on the SRF cavities.  
poster icon Poster TUP055 [1.744 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-TUP055  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 05 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUP056 A First-Principles Study on Magnetic Flux Trapping at Niobium Grain Boundaries niobium, electron, cavity, simulation 565
 
  • P. Garg, K.N. Solanki
    Arizona State University, Tempe, USA
  • T.R. Bieler
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • L.D. Cooley
    NHMFL, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
 
  Niobium is basis for all superconducting radio frequency cavities, a technology that accelerates charged particle beams to energy levels not possible by other means. When cavities are pushed to limits, significant heating appears at extended material defects, like grain boundaries. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how grain boundary (GB) structure and associated properties lead to trapping of magnetic field, and whether GB itself has any unusual magnetic behavior. Using first-principles calculations, external magnetic field along the GB plane was simulated within an all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave framework. A ground state with non-zero flux, indicative of flux trapping, was obtained at some grain boundaries, this outcome being influenced strongly by GB local structure. Furthermore, electronic density of states and charge-transfer calculations suggested non-zero spin polarization at grain boundaries, which may be consistent with recent observations of unusual paramagnetic magnetization as a function of specimen surface area for cavity-grade niobium.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-TUP056  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 04 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUP060 Development of Temperature and Magnetic Field Mapping System for Superconducting Cavities at KEK cavity, controls, solenoid, site 583
 
  • T. Okada, E. Kako, T. Konomi, H. Sakai, K. Umemori
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • E. Kako, T. Konomi, M. Masuzawa, H. Sakai, K. Tsuchiya, R. Ueki, K. Umemori
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • A. Poudel, T. Tajima
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  A temperature and magnetic field mapping system for a single cell superconducting cavity is being developed at KEK. The mapping system is used to observe the temperature distribution and the ambient magnetic field distribution around the outer surface of the cavity. A total of 36 boards at every 10 degrees are attached on the cavity. Each board consists of 15 carbon resistors of 100 Ω at room temperature and 3 AMR sensors of X, Y and Z directions at the equator. The calibration of the resisters and AMR sensors were carefully and precisely carried out at low temperature. The data logging system using NI loggers is enabled to measure within 1 ms in the whole cavity surface. The initial test results in the vertical test of the single-cell cavity will be reported in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-TUP060  
About • paper received ※ 05 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 05 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUP078 Lower Critical Field Measurement of NbN Multilayer Thin Film Superconductor at KEK solenoid, cavity, SRF, shielding 632
 
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • C.Z. Antoine
    CEA-IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • H. Hayano, R. Katayama, T. Kubo, T. Saeki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • R. Ito, T. Nagata
    ULVAC, Inc, Chiba, Japan
  • Y. Iwashita, H. Tongu
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
 
  Funding: The work is supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientist (A) No.17H04839.
The multilayer thin film structure of the superconductor has been proposed by A. Gurevich to enhance the maximum gradient of SRF cavities. The lower critical field Hc1 at which the vortex start penetrating the superconducting material will be improved by coating Nb with thin film superconductor such as NbN. It is expected that the enhancement of Hc1 depends on the thickness of each layer. In order to determine the optimum thickness of each layer and to compare the measurement results with the theoretical prediction proposed by T. Kubo, we developed the Hc1 measurement system using the third harmonic response of the applied AC magnetic field at KEK. For the Hc1 measurement without the influence of the edge or the shape effects, the AC magnetic field can be applied locally by the solenoid coil of 5mm diameter in our measurement system. ULVAC made the NbN-SiO2 multilayer thin film samples of various NbN thicknesses. In this report, the measurement result of the bulk Nb sample and NbN-SiO2 multilayer thin film samples of different thickness of NbN layer will be discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-TUP078  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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THP046 Magnetic Field Mapping System for Cornell Sample Host Cavity cavity, SRF, monitoring, cryomodule 961
 
  • S.N. Lobo, M. Liepe, T.E. Oseroff
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education
Dissipation due to flux trapping is a persistent problem experienced in SRF cavity testing and cryomodule operation. This work addresses accurately and cheaply measuring magnetic fields in a cryostat without using delicate and expensive fluxgate magnetometers. Anisotropic Magnetoresistive (AMR) magnetic field sensors were investigated for the detection of small fields in a cryogenic environment. Initial development of instrumentation using 16 AMR sensors is presented for the purpose of measuring magnetic fields perpendicular the normal of a 5" diameter sample plate on the Cornell sample host cavity.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-THP046  
About • paper received ※ 29 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 01 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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THP047 Progress of TRIUMF Beta-SRF Facility for Novel SRF Materials SRF, cavity, optics, niobium 964
 
  • E. Thoeng
    UBC & TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • R.A. Baartman, P. Kolb, R.E. Laxdal, B. Matheson, G. Morris, N. Muller, S. Saminathan
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  • T. Junginger
    UVIC, Victoria, Canada
 
  Funding: NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada)
SRF cavities made with bulk Nb have been the backbone of high-power modern linear accelerators. Demands for higher energy and more efficient linear accelerators, however, have strained the capabilities of bulk Nb close to its fundamental limit. Several routes have been proposed using thin film novel superconductors (e.g. Nb3Sn), SIS multilayer, and N-doping. Beta-NMR techniques are more suitable for the characterization of Meissner state in these materials, due to the capability of soft-landing radioactive ions on the nanometer scale of London penetration depth, as compared to micrometer probe of the muSR technique. Upgrade of the existing beta-NQR beamline, combined with the capability of high parallel magnetic field (200 mT) are the scope of the beta-SRF facility which has been fully funded. All hardware required for the upgrade has also been procured. The status of the commissioning, which is currently in phase I, is reported here, together with the future schedule of phase II with the fully installed beta-SRF beamline. Finally, the detail layout of the completed beamline and sample requirements will be included in this paper which might be of interest of future users.
 
poster icon Poster THP047 [1.372 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-THP047  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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THP102 Uncertainty Quantification of a Quadrupole-Resonator for Radio Frequency Characterization of Superconductors quadrupole, cavity, HOM, SRF 1168
 
  • P. Putek, S. Gorgi Zadeh, U. van Rienen
    Rostock University, Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Rostock, Germany
  • W. Hillert
    ELSA, Bonn, Germany
  • W. Hillert, M. Wenskat
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Wenskat
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • U. van Rienen
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
 
  Funding: This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry for Research and Education BMBF under contract 05H18HRRB1.
To explore the fundamental properties of superconducting materials used in modern particle accelerators, high precision surface resistance measurements in a dedicated testing equipment is of key importance. The quadrupole resonator, originally developed at CERN, and then successfully modified at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, is ideally suited for characterization of samples at temperatures of 1.8 K to > 20 K, RF fields of up to 120 mT and frequencies of 433 MHz, 866 MHz and 1.3 GHz. In the past years, this set-up has been subject of intensive research on both its capabilities and limitations. Yet, one of the main challenges is the accuracy of the surface resistance measurement, which is determined by both the uncertainty in the RF measurement and manufacturing imperfections related to the production tolerances such as quenching and chemical polishing processes, etc. In this contribution, we focus on the influence of key geometrical parameters on operating the quadrupole resonator at the third mode, since the surface resistance measurement shows some unexpected behavior for this frequency.
* Design and Fabrication of a Quadrupole-Resonator for Sample R&D by M. Wenskat, W. Hillert, et al.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-THP102  
About • paper received ※ 25 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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FRCAA6 Investigation on 1, 3 and 9-Cell SRF Elliptical Cavities made of Large Grain Niobium cavity, SRF, niobium, cryomodule 1213
 
  • T. Dohmae, H. Inoue, T. Kubo, H. Shimizu, K. Umemori, Y. Watanabe, M. Yamanaka
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Large grain (LG) niobium is directly sliced from niobium ingot. LG niobium sheet has larger crystal size than that of fine grain (FG) niobium which is forged and rolled, and normally used as the SRF cavity materials. It is expected that higher Q-value can be achieved using LG niobium sheet. And, effective reduction in material cost can be also achieved by LG niobium since forge and rolling process are skipped. On the other hand, there are some difficulties in fabrication since it has large deformation due to strong anisotropy. Cavity fabrication facility in KEK has been fabricated 1, 3 and 9-cell elliptical cavities made by LG niobium and RF tested in vertical cryostat. In this talk, the fabrication process and test results from these cavities will be presented.  
slides icon Slides FRCAA6 [5.819 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-FRCAA6  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 01 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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FRCAB8 Systematic Studies of the Second Sound Method for Quench Detection of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities cavity, simulation, interface, diagnostics 1239
 
  • L. Steder, B. Bein, D. Reschke
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Hillert
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
 
  DESY conducts R&D for SRF cavities, part of the manifold activities are vertical performance tests. Besides the determination of accelerating gradient and quality factor, additional sensors and diagnostic methods are used to obtain more information about the cavity behaviour and the test environment. The second sound system is a tool for spatially resolved quench detection via oscillating super-leak transducers, they record the second sound wave, generated by the quench of the superconducting Niobium. The mounting of the sensors was improved to reduce systematic uncertainties and results of a recent master thesis are presented in the following. Different reconstruction methods are used to determine the origin of the waves. The precision, constraints and limits of these are compared. To introduce an external reference and to qualify the different methods a calibration tool was used. It injects short heat pulses to resistors at exact known space and time coordinates. Results obtained by the different algorithms and measurements with the calibration tool are presented with an emphasis on the possible spatial resolution and the estimation of systematic uncertainties of the methods.  
slides icon Slides FRCAB8 [3.039 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-FRCAB8  
About • paper received ※ 21 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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