Fundamental R&D - Nb
processing (doping, heat treatment)
Paper Title Page
FRTU3
Pushing Bulk Nb Limits (High Q, High Gradient, Reliable SRF Accelerators)  
 
  • A. Grassellino
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Superconducting RF technology for particle accelerators have come a long way but still have huge and unexplored potential. SRF technology state of the art cavities have gradients up to 50 MV/m and quality factors exceeding 5·1010 at 2K, 1.3 GHz, 2·1011 at 1.5K, 2·1010 at 4.2K (Nb3Sn). SRF is now at the beginning of a new phase. The next factor of 2-3 will require a strong focus on: Physics of SRF surface (material science tools. As much involvement as possible of superconductivity theory experts with strong ties to technology centers/labs. Long term to focus on: what is the ultimate limit for achievable gradients and Q? Can we go to 100 MV/m or more? We need to understand the ultimate limitations and explore pathways forward.  
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MOP019 Surface Preparation and Optimization of SC CH Cavities 71
SUSP024   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • P. Müller, M. Basten, M. Busch, T. Conrad, H. Podlech
    IAP, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • K. Aulenbacher, F.D. Dziuba, M. Miski-Oglu
    HIM, Mainz, Germany
  • W.A. Barth
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  The Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) introduced the superconducting multi-gap CH-structure, which is mainly designed for low beta hadron acceleration. In 2017, a 217 MHz sc CH-structure was successfully tested with beam at GSI and multiple CH-structures are currently under development for the GSI cw linac. RF performance of all sc cavities are limited by the surface properties of the used material. Therefore, sufficient surface preparation and optimization is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Presently as standard procedure BCP and HPR is used for CH-cavities. Several surface treatments will be applied to the very first CH-prototype, a 360 MHz, 19-cell cavity. Prior to the first treatment, the status of the cavity was examined, including leak tests and performance tests at 4 and 2 K. This paper presents the performance development of a sc CH cavity depending on different preparation methods.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP019  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 05 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP022 Superconducting RF Cavity Materials Research at the S-DALINAC 74
 
  • R. Grewe, L. Alff, M. Arnold, J. Conrad, S. Flege, M. Major, N. Pietralla
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
  • F. Hug
    IKP, Mainz, Germany
 
  Funding: Supported by BMBF Through 05H18RDRB2
Current state-of-the-art superconducting rf (srf) accelerators are mostly using cavities made of high RRR bulk niobium (Nb). The maximum field gradients and quality factors (Q0) of these cavities are basically reached now. To further increase the srf cavity properties for future accelerator facilities, research of new materials for srf cavity applications is necessary. The current research at the S-DALINAC* is focused on the development of bake-out procedures of Nb samples and cavities in nitrogen (N) atmosphere of up to 100 mbar to nucleate the delta-phase (d-phase) of the Nb-N binary system. The d-phase has superconducting properties which exceed the properties of bulk Nb. This makes the d-phase attractive for srf applications. The vertical test cryostat (vt) at the S-DALINAC has been upgraded and recommissioned to allow investigations of the quality factor and accelerating field gradients of cavities before and after bake-out. The vt upgrade includes a newly developed variable input coupling to allow matching of the external q-factor (Qex) to Q0. The results of the ongoing research of the nitrogen atmosphere bake-out procedures and the upgrade of the vt will be presented.
*N. Pietralla, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 28, No. 2, 4 (2018)
 
poster icon Poster MOP022 [1.759 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP022  
About • paper received ※ 21 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 01 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP023 Nitrogen Infusion Sample R&D at DESY 77
SUSP002   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • C. Bate, A. Dangwal Pandey, A. Ermakov, B. Foster, T.F. Keller, D. Reschke, J. Schaffran, S. Sievers, N. Walker, H. Weise, M. Wenskat
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Hillert
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • G.D.L. Semione, V. Vonk
    DESY Nanolab, FS-NL, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Stierle
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The European XFEL continuous wave upgrade requires cavities with reduced surface resistance (high Q-values) for high duty cycle while maintaining high accelerating gradient for short-pulse operation. A possible way to meet the requirements is the so-called nitrogen infusion procedure. However, a fundamental understanding and a theoretical model of this method are still missing. The approach shown here is based on sample R&D, with the goal to identify key parameters of the process and establish a stable, reproducible recipe. To understand the underlying processes of the surface evolution, which gives improved cavity performance, advanced surface analysis techniques (e.g. SEM/EDX, TEM, XPS, TOF-SIMS) are utilized. Additionally, a small furnace just for samples was set up to change and explore the parameter space of the infusion recipe. Results of these analyses, their implications for the cavity R&D and next steps are presented.  
poster icon Poster MOP023 [3.759 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP023  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP024 Vacancy-Hydrogen Dynamics in Samples During Low Temperature Baking 83
 
  • M. Wenskat, C. Bate, D. Reschke, H. Weise
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • C. Bate
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Butterling, E. Hirschmann, M.O. Liedke, A. Wagner
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  • J. Cizek
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Helmholtz Association within the topic Accelerator Research and Development (ARD) of the Matter and Technologies (MT) Program and by the BMBF under the research grant 05H18GURB1.
The recent discovery of a modified low temperature baking process lead to a reduction of surface losses and an increase of the accelerating gradient of TESLA shape cavities. The hypothesis linking the accelerator performance and the treatment is the suppression of lossy nanohydrides via defect trapping, with vacancy-hydrogen complexes forming at the lower temperatures. Utilizing Doppler broadening Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy samples made from European XFEL niobium sheets and cavity cut-outs were investigated. The evolution of vacancies, hydrogen and their interaction at different temperature levels have been studied during in-situ annealing. Measurements of niobium samples and a correlation between RF, material properties, and V-H distribution in cavity cut-outs has been done.
 
poster icon Poster MOP024 [1.087 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP024  
About • paper received ※ 20 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP025 Cavity Cut-out Studies of a 1.3 GHz Single-cell Cavity After a Failed Nitrogen Infusion Process 87
 
  • M. Wenskat, C. Bate, T.F. Keller, D. Reschke
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • C. Bate
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • A. Jeromin
    DESY Nanolab, FS-NL, Hamburg, Germany
  • J. Knobloch, F. Kramer, O. Kugeler, J.M. Köszegi
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • J. Knobloch
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Helmholtz Association within the topic Accelerator Research and Development (ARD) of the Matter and Technologies (MT) Program and by the BMBF under the research grant 05H18GURB1.
R&D on the nitrogen infusion process at DESY produced at the beginning a series of 1.3 GHz single-cell cavities which have shown severe deterioration in the vertical cold test which was completely unexpected and could not be explained. To investigate the reason for the deterioration, one of those cavities was optically inspected and a T- and H-Map test was done in collaboration with HZB. Together with 2nd Sound data, regions of interests were identified and cut from the cavity. Subsequent surface analysis techniques (SEM/EDX, SIMS, PIXE, EBSD, DB-PAS, PALS, XPS) were applied in order to identify the reason for the deterioration. Especially the differences between hot and cold spots as well as quench spots identified by T-Mapping were investigated.
 
poster icon Poster MOP025 [0.975 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP025  
About • paper received ※ 20 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP026 A Cross-Lab Qualification of Modified 120°C Baked Cavities 90
 
  • M. Wenskat, D. Reschke, J. Schaffran, L. Steder, M. Wiencek
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • D. Bafia, A. Grassellino, O.S. Melnychuk
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • A.D. Palczewski
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • M. Wiencek
    IFJ-PAN, Kraków, Poland
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the Helmholtz Association within the topic Accelerator Research and Development (ARD) of the Matter and Technologies (MT) Program and by the BMBF under the research grant 05H18GURB1.
Within a global effort to understand and standardize the nitrogen-infusion and the low T bake procedure, one large grain and two fine grain single-cell cavity were treated and tested at FNAL and then send to other labs including DESY and JLab for further studies.
 
poster icon Poster MOP026 [0.813 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP026  
About • paper received ※ 20 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP027 Study on Nitrogen Infusion using KEK New Furnace 95
 
  • K. Umemori, E. Kako, T. Konomi, S. Michizono, H. Sakai
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • T. Okada
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • J. Tamura
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
 
  KEK has been carried out high-Q/high-G R&D, to realize high performance of SRF cavities toward ILC. KEK constructed a new furnace, which is dedicated for N-infusion studies. We performed more than 10 times of N-infusion trials using 1.3 GHz single-cell cavities. Some results showed better Q-values up to high field, however, some results showed degraded Q-E slopes probably due to contamination. Improvement of accelerating gradient is not observed at moment. We have tried to clean the furnace and Nitrogen injection line to reduce the effect of contamination. Details of procedures of N-infusion, results of vertical tests, condition of the furnace including RGA spectrum and Nb sample analysis results are shown.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP027  
About • paper received ※ 04 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 04 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP028 Materials Science Investigations of Nitrogen-Doped Niobium for SRF Cavities 99
 
  • M. Major, L. Alff, M. Arnold, J. Conrad, S. Flege, R. Grewe, N. Pietralla
    TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
 
  Funding: Work supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) through grant 05H18RDRB2.
Niobium is the standard material for superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for particle acceleration. Superconducting materials with higher critical temperature or higher critical magnetic field allow cavities to work at higher operating temperatures or higher accelerating fields, respectively. Enhancing the surface properties of the superconducting material in the range of the penetration depth is also beneficial. One direction of search for new materials with better properties is the modification of bulk niobium by nitrogen doping. In the Nb-N phase diagram, the cubic delta-phase of NbN has the highest critical temperature. Niobium samples were annealed and N-doped in the high-temperature furnace at TU Darmstadt and investigated at its Materials Research Department with respect to structural modifications. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed at which conditions N-diffusion takes place. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the appearance of NbN and Nb2N phases for the optimized doping process. XRD pole figures also showed grain growth during sample annealing.
 
poster icon Poster MOP028 [2.555 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP028  
About • paper received ※ 05 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 12 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP029 N-Doping Studies With Single-Cell Cavities for the SHINE Project 102
 
  • J.F. Chen, H.T. Hou, Y.F. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Wang
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • Y.W. Huang
    ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • Z. Wang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  The SHINE SRF accelerator is designed to operate in CW mode with more than six hundred superconducting cavities. In order to reduce the high cost of construction and operation of the cryogenic system, high-Q cavities with nitrogen-doping technology together with tradition-ally treated large-grain cavities have been considered as two possible options. In this paper, we present N-doping studies on single-cell cavities fabricated with fine-grain and large-grain niobium.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP029  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP030 Analysis of Surface Nitrides Created During "Doping" Heat Treatments of Niobium 106
 
  • J.K. Spradlin, A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece, H. Tian
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
The benefits of reduced RF losses from interstitial "doping" of niobium are well established. Many of the details involved in the process remain yet to be elucidated. The niobium surface reacted with low-pressure nitrogen at 800°C presents a surface with chemical reactivity different than standard niobium. While standard "recipes" are being used to produce cavities, we seek additional insight into the chemical processes that may be used to remove the "undesirable" as-formed surface layer. This may lead to new processing routes or quality assurance methods to build confidence that all surface "nitrides" have been removed. We report a series of alternate chemistry treatments and subsequent morphological examinations and interpret the results. We also introduce a new standardized Nb sample system in use for efficient characterization of varying doping protocols and cross-laboratory calibration.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP030  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 29 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP031 Investigation of Frequency Behavior Near Tc of Niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities 112
SUSP016   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • D. Bafia, J. Zasadzinski
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • D. Bafia, M. Checchin, A. Grassellino, O.S. Melnychuk, A.S. Romanenko, D.A. Sergatskov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  This paper will present a systematic investigation of the resonant frequency behavior of niobium SRF cavities subject to different surface processing (nitrogen doping, nitrogen infusion, 120°C bake, EP, etc.) near the critical transition temperature. We find features occurring in frequency versus temperature (FvsT) data near Tc that seem to vary with surface processing. Emphasis is placed on one of the observed features: a dip in the superconducting resonant frequency below the normal conducting value which is prominent in nitrogen doped cavities and appears to be a signature of nitrogen doping. This gives further insights on the mechanisms responsible for the large increase in performance of cavities subject to this surface treatment. The magnitude of this dip in frequency is studied and related to possible physical parameters such as the concentration of impurities near the surface and the design resonant frequency of the cavity. A possible explanation for the meaning of this dip is discussed, namely, that it is a result of strong coupling between electrons and phonons within the resonator.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP031  
About • paper received ※ 23 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP032 Effect of Low Temperature Infusion Heat Treatments and "2/0" Doping on Superconducting Cavity Performance 118
 
  • P.N. Koufalis, M. Ge, M. Liepe, J.T. Maniscalco
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Under specific circumstances, low temperature infusion heat treatments of niobium cavities have resulted in the ubiquitous "Q-rise". This is an increase in quality factor with increasing field strength or equivalently a decrease in the temperature-dependent component of the surface resistance. We investigate the results of various infusion conditions with infusion bake time as a free parameter. To study the very near surface effects of infusion, we employ HF rinsing, light VEP, and oxypolishing to remove several or tens of nm at a time. We present results from RF performance tests of low temperature infusion heat treated niobium cavities, and correlate these with SIMS impurity depth profiles obtained from witness samples. We also present results of a cavity doped at 800 C with the "2/0" recipe.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP032  
About • paper received ※ 26 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 02 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP039 Nitrogen Doping Studies of Superconducting Cavities at Peking University 141
SUSP012   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • S. Chen, M. Chen, L.W. Feng, J.K. Hao, L. Lin, K.X. Liu, S.W. Quan, F. Wang, F. Zhu
    PKU, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Nitrogen doping studies with 1.3 GHz superconducting cavities were carried out at Peking University in recent years. We have realized 4×1010 of high quality factor at 12 MV/m and 2.0 K with large grain single cell cavities by heavy doping. To improve the accelerating gradient of high Q cavities, light doping recipe is adopted. Accelerating gradient is improved to 20 MV/m and the quality factor is larger than 3×1010 at 16 MV/m and 2.0 K for light doped cavities. The nitrogen treatment, test and analysis are presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP039  
About • paper received ※ 21 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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MOP045 The LCLS-II HE High Q and Gradient R&D Program 154
 
  • D. Gonnella, S. Aderhold, A. Burrill, G.R. Hays, T.O. Raubenheimer, M.C. Ross
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • D. Bafia, M. Checchin, A. Grassellino, M. Martinello, A.S. Romanenko
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • M. Ge, M. Liepe, S. Posen
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: US DOE and the LCLS-II HE Project
The LCLS-II HE project is a high energy upgrade to the superconducting LCLS-II linac. It consists of adding twenty additional 1.3 GHz cryomodules to the linac, with cavities operating at a gradient of 20.8 MV/m with a Q0 of 2.7·1010. Performance of LCLS-II cryomodules has suggested that operations at this high of a gradient will not be achievable with the existing cavity recipe employed. Therefore a research program was developed between SLAC, Fermilab, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and Cornell University in order to improve the cavity processing method of the SRF cavities and reach the HE goals. This program explores the doping regime beyond what was done for LCLS-II and also has looked to further developed nitrogen-infusion. Here we will summarize the results from this R\&D program, showing significant improvement on both single-cell and 9-cell cavities compared with the original LCLS-II cavity recipe.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-MOP045  
About • paper received ※ 25 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUFUA2
Overview of Progress in High Q and High G in Niobium Cavities  
 
  • A. Grassellino
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  There was no abstract provided by the author.  
slides icon Slides TUFUA2 [42.782 MB]  
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TUFUA3
Development of a Qualitative Model for N-Doping Effects on Nb SRF Cavities  
 
  • A.D. Palczewski, C.E. Reece, J.K. Spradlin
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • J.W. Angle
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
In early 2018, preliminary RF date from the LCLS-II HE program suggested two new high temperature doping recipes developed at Jefferson Laboratory (3N60) and Fermi Nation Laboratory (2N0) produced quench fields outside expectations.* Both recipes showed quench fields (while maintaining high Q0) outside the simplified model where the quench field scaled purely with the RF surface doping level. In late 2018 we developed a qualitative going on a quantitative model based on preliminary SIMS/SEM measurements of the new recipes that would explain the quench field distribution. Unfortunately, subsequent measurements invalidated the developing model. We will present our original qualitative model and new data where the model breaks down; showing the multi-variable dynamics which we now think we need to understand in order to fully model and maximize quench fields for high temperature doping.
* Palczewski, A.D. and Bafia, D., contributions TESLA Technology Collaboration University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, February 5 - 8 2019
 
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TUFUA5 Recent Development on Nitrogen Infusion Work Towards High Q and High Gradient 355
 
  • P. Dhakal
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
A quality factor as high as 2 × 1010 at 1.5 GHz was achieved at a gradient of 35 MV/m by 800 °C annealing and N-infusion at 140 °C. A comparison of the field dependence of the surface resistance after N-infusion with a recent theoretical model that extends the calculation of the BCS surface resistance to high rf fields suggests an increase in the quasiparticles’ relaxation time with increasing infusion temperature, which could be due to a decreasing density of subgap states. Nb coupons treated similarly showed the formation of thicker oxynitride layer on the surface beneath thin dielectric Nb2O5 layer. A plausible explanation for the improved Q0 is that the oxynitride layer on the Nb surface adds additional electron scattering within RF penetration depth.
 
slides icon Slides TUFUA5 [6.077 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-TUFUA5  
About • paper received ※ 19 June 2019       paper accepted ※ 30 June 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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TUFUA6
Surface Analysis of Niobium After Thermal/Gas Treatments via Samples - Review  
 
  • A. Dangwal Pandey, T.F. Keller, H. Noei, D. Reschke, J. Schaffran, G.D.L. Semione, V. Vonk, H. Weise, M. Wenskat
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • C. Bate, A. Stierle
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Thermal treatments of SRF Nb cavities - including the well-established 120°C bake and the recently reported N-infusion - are shown to improve the cavity performance significantly; however, the underlying physical phenomenon is not fully understood. A short review will be presented on surface characterization of niobium material subjected to various thermal and gas exposure protocols and how the findings correlate with observed SRF properties. Moreover, recent results obtained on single-crystal Nb samples - heated in different vacuum environments and characterised by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy will be discussed.  
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FRCAA3 Industrial Cavity Production: Lessons Learned to Push the Boundaries of Nitrogen-Doping 1199
 
  • D. Gonnella, S. Aderhold, A. Burrill, M.C. Ross
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • E. Daly, G.K. Davis, F. Marhauser, A.D. Palczewski, K.M. Wilson
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • A. Grassellino, C.J. Grimm, T.N. Khabiboulline, O.S. Melnychuk, S. Posen, D.A. Sergatskov
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Nitrogen doping has been proven now in several labs to enhance Q0 values of 1.3 GHz cavities in the gradient domain favored by CW operation. The choice of doping for the LCLS-II project has given the community a wealth of statistics and experience on the challenge of transferring the doping technology to industry. Overall, industry-produced nitrogen-doped cavities have shown excellent performance, however some technical issues have arisen. This talk focuses on lessons learned from the production of over 300 nitrogen-doped cavities for LCLS-II and how issues were mitigated to further improve performance. Finally, I will discuss pushing the boundaries of nitrogen-doping further by exploring different doping regimes in order to maintain excellent Q0 performance, while reaching higher quench fields.
 
slides icon Slides FRCAA3 [16.880 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-SRF2019-FRCAA3  
About • paper received ※ 02 July 2019       paper accepted ※ 03 July 2019       issue date ※ 14 August 2019  
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